Keyboard scancodes - QB64 Wiki

Keyboard scancodes

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  • Keyboards with Alt Gr key: _KEYHIT may return both Alt(100307) and Ctrl(100306) codes when that key is pressed or released.
  • Linux with foreign keyboards: SHELL _HIDE "setxkbmap us" will setup a keyboard to read US Scancodes.


Contents

INKEY$ Codes

  • INKEY$ returns a STRING ASCII character or a function key two byte string. ASC converts to code. Use: key$ = INKEY$
  • Key presses are read consecutively from the keyboard buffer which will retain a SLEEP key press.

' ASCII Keyboard Codes ' ' Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Sys ScL Pause ' 27 +59 +60 +61 +62 +63 +64 +65 +66 +67 +68 +133 +134 - - - ' `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkSp Ins Hme PUp NumL / * - ' 126 33 64 35 36 37 94 38 42 40 41 95 43 8 +82 +71 +73 - 47 42 45 ' 96 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 48 45 61 ' Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Del End PDn 7Hme 8/▲ 9PU + ' 9 81 87 69 82 84 89 85 73 79 80 123 125 124 +83 +79 +81 +71 +72 +73 43 ' 113 119 101 114 116 121 117 105 111 112 91 93 92 55 56 57 ' CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► ' - 65 83 68 70 71 72 74 75 76 58 34 13 +75 +76 +77 E ' 97 115 100 102 103 104 106 107 108 59 39 52 53 54 n ' Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1End 2/▼ 3PD t ' * 90 88 67 86 66 78 77 60 62 63 * +72 +79 +80 +81 e ' 122 120 99 118 98 110 109 44 46 47 49 50 51 r ' Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0Ins .Del ' * - * 32 * - - * +75 +80 +77 +82 +83 13 ' 48 46 ' ' Italics = LCase/NumLock On * = 2 byte combo only, + = 2 Byte: CHR$(0) + CHR$(code) '

GO TO: Scan Codes, ON KEY, _KEYHIT, _DEVICES, Windows Virtual

INP Scan Codes

  • INP(&H60) returns multiple INTEGER press and release codes as keys are used. Use: code% = INP(96)
  • To clear the keyboard buffer, use the INKEY$ function before or after the INP read to avoid buffer overflows and beeps.
  • Keys are assigned only one code irregardless of case or Lock mode with release codes being the press code + 128.

' Extended Keyboard Press Scancodes ' ' Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 SysReq ScrL Pause ' 1 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 87 88 0 70 29 ' `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkSpc Insert Home PgUp NumL / * - ' 41 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 82 71 73 69 53 55 74 ' Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Delete End PgDn 7/Home 8/▲ 9/PU + ' 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 43 83 79 81 71 72 73 78 ' CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► E ' 58 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 28 75 76 77 n ' Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1/End 2/▼ 3/PD t ' 42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 72 79 80 81 e ' Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0/Insert ./Del r ' 29 91 56 57 56 92 93 29 75 80 77 82 83 28 ' ' QB64 codes only! Release codes = Press code + 128. Pause/Break may lock code returns. '

Keyboard Scan Codes........... Other Keyboards


GO TO:INKEY$, ON KEY, _KEYHIT, _DEVICES, Windows Virtual

ON KEY Events

  • Assign user defined Soft Key or key combination numbers 15 to 29 with: KEY number, CHR$(keyflag) + CHR$(scancode)
  • Combo Key flags: 0 = none, LShift = 1, RShift = 2, LCtrl = 4, LAlt = 8, NumLock = 32, CapsLock = 64, Extended keys = 128
  • Red KEY numbers 1 to 14, 30 or 31 assign predefined one key events using: ON KEY(number) GOSUB subname

' Soft Key Scan Code Values ' ' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 31 Predefined Keys ' Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 SysReq ScrL Pause ' 1 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 87 88 -- 70 29 ' `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkSpc Insert Home PgUp NumL / * - ' 41 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 82 71 73 32/69 53 55 74 ' Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Delete End PgDn 7/Home 8/▲ 9/PU + ' 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 43 83 79 81 71 11/72 73 78 ' CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► E ' 64/58 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 28 12/75 76 13/77 n ' Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1/End 2/▼ 3/PD t ' 1/42 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 2/54 72 79 14/80 81 e ' Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0/Insert ./Del r ' 4/29 91 8/56 57 56 92 93 29 75 80 77 82 83 28 ' ' Keyflag: Function(0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 32, 64), Extended(128) Scan Code: 1-88, QB64 only(91-93) ' ' Reserved and function key combinations can be made using the scan code instead. ' Add function and/or extended flag values for more key combinations.

GO TO:INKEY$, Scan Codes, _KEYHIT, _DEVICES, Windows Virtual

KEYHIT and KEYDOWN Codes

  • _KEYHIT returns multiple LONG press and negative release codes as keys are used. Use: code& = _KEYHIT
  • _KEYDOWN returns -1 when a specified key code value is pressed or 0. Use: status% = _KEYDOWN(code&)
  • Most keys use ASCII key code values. Function key code values can be calculated using the INKEY$ two byte values with CVI.

' QB64 _KEYHIT and _KEYDOWN Values ' 'Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Sys ScL Pause ' 27 15104 15360 15616 15872 16128 16384 16640 16896 17152 17408 34048 34304 +316 +302 +019 '`~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkSp Ins Hme PUp NumL / * - '126 33 64 35 36 37 94 38 42 40 41 95 43 8 20992 18176 18688 +300 47 42 45 ' 96 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 48 45 61 'Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Del End PDn 7Hme 8/▲ 9PU + ' 9 81 87 69 82 84 89 85 73 79 80 123 125 124 21248 20224 20736 18176 18432 18688 43 ' 113 119 101 114 116 121 117 105 111 112 91 93 92 55 56 57 'CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► '+301 65 83 68 70 71 72 74 75 76 58 34 13 19200 19456 19712 E ' 97 115 100 102 103 104 106 107 108 59 39 52 53 54 n 'Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1End 2/▼ 3PD t '+304 90 88 67 86 66 78 77 60 62 63 +303 18432 20224 20480 20736 e ' 122 120 99 118 98 110 109 44 46 47 49 50 51 r 'Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0Ins .Del '+306 +311 +308 32 +307 +312 +319 +305 19200 20480 19712 20992 21248 13 ' 48 46 ' Lower value = LCase/NumLock On __________________ + = add 100000

GO TO: INKEY$, Scan Codes, ON KEY, _DEVICES, Windows Virtual


In QB64, CVI can be used to get the _KEYDOWN 2-byte code value. Example: status = _KEYDOWN(CVI(CHR$(0) + "P"))
For Ctrl, Alt, Shift Key Combinations see Two Byte Codes

DEVICES Button

  • _LASTBUTTON(1) keyboards will normally return 512 buttons. One button is read per loop through all numbers.
  • _BUTTONCHANGE(number) returns -1 when pressed, 1 when released and 0 when there is no event since the last read.
  • _BUTTON(number) returns -1 when a button is pressed and 0 when released.


' Keyboard Device 1 Button Numbers ' ' Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 SysReq ScrL Pause ' 177 436 433 434 439 440 437 438 395 396 393 394 399 402 392 --- ' `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkSpc Insert Home PgUp NumL / * - ' 246 155 156 153 154 159 160 157 158 147 134 135 151 174 447 448 446 386 417 418 423 ' Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Delete End PgDn 7/Home 8/▲ 9/PU + ' 163 219 221 207 220 218 211 223 195 197 198 241 247 242 213 445 435 429 430 419 424 ' CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► E ' 391 203 217 202 208 205 206 196 193 194 145 141 167 426 431 432 n ' Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1/End 2/▼ 3/PD t ' 390 212 222 201 224 204 200 199 130 136 133 389 443 427 428 432 e ' Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0/Insert ./Del r ' 412 413 410 182 409 414 405 411 442 444 441 86 420 421 ' ' Mouse Device 2 buttons: Left = 1, Middle = 2, Right = 3


GO TO: INKEY$, Scan Codes, ON KEY, _KEYHIT, Windows Virtual

Windows Virtual Codes

  • Virtual key code status can be read independently of Windows program focus. Not available in Linux or Mac systems.
  • Use: status = GetKeyState%(code%) or GetAsyncKeyState%(code&) or with keybd_event in DECLARE LIBRARY with/wo "User32".


' Virtual KeyState Codes ' ' Esc F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 Sys ScL Pause ' 27 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 44 145 19 ' `~ 1! 2@ 3# 4$ 5% 6^ 7& 8* 9( 0) -_ =+ BkS Ins Hme PUp NumL / * - ' 192 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 48 189 187 8 45 36 33 144 111 106 109 ' Tab Q W E R T Y U I O P [{ ]} \| Del End PDn 7Hme 8/▲ 9PU + ' 9 81 87 69 82 84 89 85 73 79 80 219 221 120 46 35 34 103 104 105 107 ' CapL A S D F G H J K L  ;: '" Enter 4/◄- 5 6/-► E ' 20 65 83 68 70 71 72 74 75 76 186 222 13 100 101 102 n ' Shift Z X C V B N M ,< .> /? Shift ▲ 1End 2/▼ 3PD t ' 16/160 90 88 67 86 66 78 77 188 190 191 16/161 38 97 98 99 e ' Ctrl Win Alt Spacebar Alt Win Menu Ctrl ◄- ▼ -► 0Ins .Del r ' 17/162 91 18/164 32 18/165 92 93 17/163 37 40 39 96 110 13 ' ' Num Lock On values shown. Off values same as functions and arrows, 5 = code 12. ' ' Mouse click returns: LB = 1, RB = 2, MB = 4, etc. Special keys may also work.


GO TO: INKEY$, Scan Codes, ON KEY, _KEYHIT, _DEVICES,

Example Code

Example: A Function that retrieves multiple scancodes (allows 2 players and diagonal moves). Function includes it's own array.

DECLARE FUNCTION ScanKey%(code%) 'NOT required in QB64 CLS x = 40: px = x y = 20: py = y xx = 41: pxx = xx yy = 21: pyy = yy DO ' program or game loop _LIMIT 20 ' Delay .05 'in QBasic COLOR 15 LOCATE 8, 14: PRINT "W A S D": LOCATE 8, 52: PRINT "ARROW PAD" IF ScanKey%(17) THEN 'W key LOCATE 2, 15: PRINT " UP " IF y > 1 THEN y = y - 1 ELSE LOCATE 2, 15: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(31) THEN 'S key LOCATE 6, 15: PRINT "DOWN" IF y < 25 THEN y = y + 1 ELSE LOCATE 6, 15: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(30) THEN 'A key LOCATE 4, 12: PRINT "LEFT" IF x > 1 THEN x = x - 1 ELSE LOCATE 4, 12: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(32) THEN 'D key LOCATE 4, 18: PRINT "RIGHT" IF x < 80 THEN x = x + 1 ELSE LOCATE 4, 18: PRINT "---- " END IF IF ScanKey%(72) THEN 'up arrow LOCATE 2, 55: PRINT " UP " IF yy > 1 THEN yy = yy - 1 ELSE LOCATE 2, 55: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(80) THEN 'down arrow LOCATE 6, 55: PRINT "DOWN" IF yy < 25 THEN yy = yy + 1 ELSE LOCATE 6, 55: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(75) THEN 'left arrow LOCATE 4, 52: PRINT "LEFT" IF xx > 1 THEN xx = xx - 1 ELSE LOCATE 4, 52: PRINT "----" END IF IF ScanKey%(77) THEN 'right arrow LOCATE 4, 58: PRINT "RIGHT" IF xx < 80 THEN xx = xx + 1 ELSE LOCATE 4, 58: PRINT "---- " END IF LOCATE py, px: PRINT SPACE$(1); 'erase sprite at previous position LOCATE pyy, pxx: PRINT SPACE$(1); COLOR 10: LOCATE y, x: PRINT CHR$(1); 'place sprite at new position COLOR 12: LOCATE yy, xx: PRINT CHR$(2); px = x: py = y: pxx = xx: pyy = yy LOOP UNTIL ScanKey%(1) zerocodes% = ScanKey%(0) 'reset all array values to zero for next part of program END FUNCTION ScanKey% (scancode%) STATIC Ready%, keyflags%() 'retain values on procedure exit IF NOT Ready% THEN REDIM keyflags%(0 TO 127): Ready% = -1 'create array on first use i% = INP(&H60) 'read keyboard states IF (i% AND 128) THEN keyflags%(i% XOR 128) = 0 IF (i% AND 128) = 0 THEN keyflags%(i%) = -1 K$ = INKEY$ 'clears the key from buffer to prevent beeps ScanKey% = keyflags%(scancode%) IF scancode% = 0 THEN Ready% = 0 'a zero scancode value clears all previous key presses with a REDIM END FUNCTION SUB Delay (dlay!) 'optional QBasic delay start! = TIMER DO WHILE start! + dlay! >= TIMER IF start! > TIMER THEN start! = start! - 86400 LOOP END SUB

UP UP ---- RIGHT LEFT ---- ---- ---- W A S D ARROW PAD

Adapted from Code by Cyperium.
Explanation: Displays multiple arrow key presses to move a game character diagonally or allows 2 players to press keys at once. Each keypress is placed into a STATIC array inside of the ScanKey function. When a key is pressed, the corresponding code index in the array is changed to -1 or True. When a key is released, the scancode returned is over 128 so AND 128 becomes True and the XOR 128 index value is changed to 0. XOR causes 128 to be subtracted from the release code index value which is then changed to 0 (False) from -1. As the main program loop reads the array each of the IF statements look to see if that code is -1. When a statement is True, it prints the appropriate key(s). The example moves two ASCII sprites. Note: INKEY$ can be removed from the function if it is used elsewhere to help clear the key buffer.
The Scankey Function array can be cleared by sending 0 as the scancode% or by pressing the Print Screen/System Request key.


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