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DIM

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The DIM statement is used to declare a variable or a list of variables as a specified data type or to dimension $STATIC or $DYNAMIC arrays.


Contents

Syntax

Syntax 1: DIM [SHARED] variable[{suffix| AS type}] [, variable2...]]
Syntax 2: DIM [SHARED] array(lowest% [TO) highest%])[{suffix| AS type}] [, variable2...]
QB64 Syntax: DIM [SHARED] variable[{suffix| AS [_UNSIGNED] type}] [, variable2...]


Description

  • Sets the INTEGER range of elements (indices) of a STATIC array. If only one number is used, the lowest boundary is 0 by default.
  • When used before an array is dimensioned, OPTION BASE 1 can set the default lower boundary of arrays to 1.
  • DIM SHARED shares variable values with sub-procedures without passing the value in a parameter.
  • Use the AS keyword to define a variable or array type AS...
    • INTEGER (or use variable suffix %)
    • LONG (or use variable suffix &)
    • SINGLE (or use variable suffix ! or no suffix by default)
    • DOUBLE (or use variable suffix #)
    • STRING (or use variable suffix $). An AS multiplier can set the string length. Ex: DIM variable AS STRING * 8
  • QB64 variable types:
    • _BIT (or use variable suffix `). An AS multiplier can be used for multiple bits. Ex: DIM variable AS _BIT * 8
    • _BYTE (or use variable suffix %%)
    • _INTEGER64 (or use variable suffix &&)
    • _FLOAT (or use variable suffix ##)
    • _OFFSET (or use variable suffix %&)
    • DIM AS _MEM (the _MEM type has no type suffix).
  • Note: When a variable has not been defined or has no type suffix, the value defaults to SINGLE.
  • When the $DYNAMIC metacommand or REDIM is used, array element sizes are changeable (not $STATIC).
  • Use REDIM instead of DIM to dimension arrays as dynamic without the $DYNAMIC metacommand.
  • Use REDIM _PRESERVE in QB64 to retain previous array values when changing the size of an array.
  • REDIM _PRESERVE cannot change the number of array dimensions. An error will occur.
  • Dynamic arrays MUST be REDIMensioned if ERASE or CLEAR are used, as the arrays are completely removed.
  • All numerical variable types except SINGLE, DOUBLE and _FLOAT can be dimensioned as _UNSIGNED (suffix ~) or positive only.
  • NOTE: Many QBasic keyword variable names can be used with a STRING suffix ($). You cannot use them without the suffix, use a numerical suffix or use DIM, REDIM, _DEFINE, BYVAL or TYPE variable AS statements. Although possible, it's recommended to avoid using reserved names.
  • Warning: Do not use negative array upper bound index values, or OS access or "Out of Memory" errors will occur.


Examples

Example 1: Defines Qt variable as a one byte fixed length string.

DIM Qt AS STRING * 1

Example 2: Dimensions and types an array.

DIM Image(2000) AS INTEGER

Example 3: Dimensions array with an INTEGER type suffix.

DIM Image%(2000)

Example 4: Dimensions a range of array elements as SHARED integers.

DIM SHARED Image(1 TO 1000) AS INTEGER

Example 5: Dimensions variable as an array of 8 elements of the type UNSIGNED BIT.

DIM bit(8) AS _UNSIGNED _BIT


Example 6: QB64 is more flexible than QBasic when it comes to "Duplicate Definition" errors. The following code does not error:

x = 1 'x is a SINGLE variable PRINT x DIM x AS LONG PRINT x

Explanation: The SINGLE variable can be differentiated from the LONG x variable by using suffixes like x! or x& in later code.


Example 7: The following code will create a "Name already in use" status error in QB64 when the variable types are the same.

x = 1 'x is a SINGLE variable PRINT x DIM x AS SINGLE PRINT x

Explanation: QB64 gives an error because the creation of the new variable would make referring to the existing one impossible.


See also



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