SELECT CASE - QB64 Wiki

SELECT CASE

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SELECT CASE is used to determine the program flow by comparing the value of a variable to specific CASE values.


Contents

Syntax

SELECT [EVERY]CASE testExpression
CASE expressionList1
[statement-block1]
[CASE expressionList2
[statement-block2]]...
[CASE ELSE
[statementblock-n]]
END SELECT


  • SELECT CASE evaluates testExpression and executes the first matching CASE or CASE ELSE block and exits.
  • SELECT EVERYCASE allows the execution of all matching CASE blocks from top to bottom or the CASE ELSE block.
  • The literal, variable or expression testExpression comparison can result in any string or numerical type.
  • Note: A testExpression variable value can be changed inside of true CASE evaluations in SELECT EVERYCASE.
  • A testExpression derived from an expression or FUNCTION will only be determined once at the start of the block execution.
  • Supports individual CASE values and ranges or lists of literal values as below:
    • CASE casevalue: code 'case compares one numerical or text value
    • CASE casevalue1 TO casevalue2: code 'case compares a range of values
    • CASE casevalue1, casevalue2, casevalue3: code 'case compares a list of values separated by commas
    • CASE IS > casevalue: code 'case compares a value as =, <>, < or >
    • CASE ELSE: code 'bottom case statement executes only when no other CASE is executed.
  • The CASE values should cover the normal ranges of the comparison testExpression values.
  • Use CASE ELSE before END SELECT if an alternative is necessary when no other case matches.
  • CASEs should be listed in an ascending or descending values for best and fastest results.
  • STRING comparisons will be based on their respective ASCII code values where capital letters are valued less than lower case.
  • Use SELECT CASE when IF...THEN statements get too long or complicated.
  • SELECT CASE and EVERYCASE statement blocks must always be ended with END SELECT.
  • Use colons to execute multiple statements in one line.
  • An underscore can be used anywhere after the code on one line to continue it to the next line in QB64.


Examples

Example 1: SELECT CASE can use literal or variable STRING or numerical values in CASE comparisons:

INPUT "Enter a whole number value from 1 to 40: ", value value1 = 10 value2 = 20 value3 = 30 SELECT CASE value CASE value1: PRINT "Ten only" CASE value1 TO value2: PRINT "11 to 20 only" '10 is already evaluated CASE value1, value2, value3: PRINT "30 only" '10 and 20 are already evaluated CASE IS > value2: PRINT "greater than 20 but not 30" '30 is already evaluated CASE ELSE: PRINT "Other value" 'values less than 10 END SELECT

Explanation: The first true CASE is executed and SELECT CASE is exited. "Other value" is printed for values less than 10.


Example 2: SELECT CASE will execute the first CASE statement that is true and ignore all CASE evaluations after that:

a = 100 SELECT CASE a 'designate the value to compare CASE 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 10 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 50 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 100 PRINT "This will be displayed when a equals 100" PRINT "(and no other case will be checked)" CASE 150 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE IS < 150 PRINT "This will not be shown as a previous case was true" CASE 50 TO 150 PRINT "This will not be shown as a previous case was true" CASE ELSE PRINT "This will only print if it gets this far!" END SELECT

This will be displayed when a equals 100 (and no other case will be checked)

Explanation: The first case where a value is true is shown, the remainder are skipped. Try changing the value of a.


Example 3: Same as Example 2 but, SELECT EVERYCASE will execute every CASE statement that is true.

a = 100 SELECT EVERYCASE a 'designate the value to compare CASE 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 10 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 50 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE 100 PRINT "This will be displayed when a equals 100" PRINT "(and other cases will be checked)" CASE 150 PRINT "This will not be shown." CASE IS < 150 PRINT "This will be shown as 100 is less than 150" CASE 50 TO 150 PRINT "This will be shown as 100 is between 50 and 150" CASE ELSE PRINT "This will only print if no other CASE is true!" END SELECT

This will be displayed when a equals 100 (and other cases will be checked) This will be shown as 100 is less than 150 This will be shown as 100 is between 50 and 150

Explanation: CASE ELSE will only execute if no other CASE was true. See Example 5 for more usages.


Example 4: SELECT CASE evaluates string values by the ASC code value according to ASCII.

PRINT "Enter a letter, number or punctuation mark from the keyboard: "; valu$ = INPUT$(1) PRINT value$ value1$ = "A" value2$ = "m" value3$ = "z" SELECT CASE value$ CASE value1$: PRINT "A only" CASE value1$ TO value2$: PRINT "B to m" 'A is already evaluated CASE value1$, value2$, value3$: PRINT "z only" 'A and m are already evaluated CASE IS > value2$: PRINT "greater than m but not z" 'z is already evaluated CASE ELSE: PRINT "other value" 'key entry below A including all numbers END SELECT

Notes: STRING values using multiple characters will be compared by the ASCII code values sequentially from left to right. Once the equivalent code value of one string is larger than the other the evaluation stops. This allows string values to be compared and sorted alphabetically using > or < and to SWAP values in arrays regardless of the string lengths.


Example 5: EVERYCASE is used to draw sections of digital numbers in a simulated LED readout using numbers from 0 to 9:

SCREEN 12 DO LOCATE 1, 1: INPUT "Enter a number 0 to 9: ", num CLS SELECT EVERYCASE num CASE 0, 2, 3, 5 TO 9: PSET (20, 20), 12 DRAW "E2R30F2G2L30H2BR5P12,12" 'top horiz CASE 0, 4 TO 6, 8, 9: PSET (20, 20), 12 DRAW "F2D30G2H2U30E2BD5P12,12" 'left top vert CASE 0, 2, 6, 8: PSET (20, 54), 12 DRAW "F2D30G2H2U30E2BD5P12, 12" 'left bot vert CASE 2 TO 6, 8, 9: PSET (20, 54), 12 DRAW "E2R30F2G2L30H2BR5P12, 12" 'middle horiz CASE 0 TO 4, 7 TO 9: PSET (54, 20), 12 DRAW "F2D30G2H2U30E2BD5P12,12" 'top right vert CASE 0, 1, 3 TO 9: PSET (54, 54), 12 DRAW "F2D30G2H2U30E2BD5P12,12" 'bottom right vert CASE 0, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8: PSET (20, 88), 12 DRAW "E2R30F2G2L30H2BR5P12,12" 'bottom horiz CASE ELSE LOCATE 20, 20: PRINT "Goodbye!"; num END SELECT LOOP UNTIL num > 9

Note: CASE ELSE will only execute if no other CASE is true! Changing the comparison value in a CASE may affect later CASE evaluations. Beware of duplicate variables inside of cases affecting the comparison values and remaining cases.


See also



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