TYPE - QB64 Wiki

TYPE

From QB64 Wiki

Jump to: navigation, search

TYPE definitions are used to create variables that can hold more than one variable type of a fixed byte length.


Syntax:

TYPE typename
.
. variable(s) AS type
.
END TYPE


  • Typename is an undefined type name holder as it can hold any variable types.
  • TYPE definitions should be placed in the main module before the start of the program code execution.
  • TYPE definitions CAN be placed in SUB or FUNCTION procedures using QB64 only!
  • TYPE definitions cannot contain Array variables! Arrays can be DIMensioned as a TYPE definition.
  • TYPE definitions cannot be inside of another TYPE definition, but variables can be defined AS another type.(See Example 3)
  • TYPE definitions must be ended with END TYPE.
  • A TYPE variable MUST be assigned to the type after it is defined. Array variables are allowed.
  • Type variables must be defined in every SUB or FUNCTION unless the type variable is DIMensioned as SHARED.
  • Type variables use DOT variable names to read or write specific values. They do not use type suffixes as they can hold ANY variable type values! The name before the dot is the one you defined after the type definition and the name after is the variable name used inside of the TYPE. The name of the dimensioned type variable alone can be used to PUT # or GET # all of the data at once!
  • Once the TYPE variable is created you can find the record or byte size by using LEN(typevariable).
  • TYPE definitions can also be placed in $INCLUDE .BI text files such as QB.BI is used by INTERRUPT and INTERRUPTX.
  • _BIT is not currently supported in User Defined TYPEs.
  • NOTE: Many Qbasic keyword variable names CAN be used with a STRING suffix($) ONLY! You CANNOT use them without the suffix, use a numerical suffix or use DIM, REDIM, _DEFINE, BYVAL or TYPE variable AS statements!


Numerical types
 Type Name Type suffix symbol Minimum value Maximum value Size in Bytes
_BIT ` -1 0 1/8
_BIT * n `n -128 127 n/8
_UNSIGNED _BIT ~` 0 1 1/8
_BYTE  %% -128 127 1
_UNSIGNED _BYTE ~%% 0 255 1
INTEGER  % -32,768 32,767 2
_UNSIGNED INTEGER ~% 0 65,535 2
LONG & -2,147,483,648 2,147,483,647 4
_UNSIGNED LONG ~& 0 4,294,967,295 4
_INTEGER64 && -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 8
_UNSIGNED _INTEGER64 ~&& 0 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 8
SINGLE  ! or none -2.802597E-45 +3.402823E+38 4
DOUBLE # -4.490656458412465E-324 +1.797693134862310E+308 8
_FLOAT ## -1.18E−4932 +1.18E+4932 32(10 used)
_OFFSET  %& -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 Use LEN
_UNSIGNED _OFFSET ~%& 0 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 Use LEN
_MEM none combined memory variable type N/A Use LEN
 
Note: For the floating-point numeric types SINGLE (default when not assigned), DOUBLE and _FLOAT, the minimum values represent the smallest values closest to zero, while the maximum values represent the largest values closest to ±infinity. OFFSET dot values are used as a part of the _MEM variable type in QB64 to return or set the position in memory.


String text type
      Type Name       Type suffix symbol Minimum length Maximum length Size in Bytes
STRING $            0               2,147,483,647 Use LEN
STRING * n $n         1       2,147,483,647 n


Note: For the fixed-length string type STRING * n, where n is an integer length value from 1 (one) to 2,147,483,647.


Example 1: Creating a mouse INTERRUPT TYPE definition. Each INTEGER value is 2 bytes.

TYPE RegType AX AS INTEGER ' mouse function to use BX AS INTEGER ' mouse button CX AS INTEGER ' mouse graphic column position DX AS INTEGER ' mouse graphic row position BP AS INTEGER ' not used by mouse, but required * SI AS INTEGER ' not used by mouse, but required * DI AS INTEGER ' not used by mouse, but required * Flags AS INTEGER ' not used by mouse but required * DS AS INTEGER ' used by INTERRUPTX only ES AS INTEGER ' used by INTERRUPTX only END TYPE DIM SHARED InRegs AS RegType, OutRegs AS RegType ' create dot variables InRegs.AX = 3 ' sets the mouse function to read the mouse buttons and position. CALL INTERRUPT(&H33, InRegs, OutRegs) column% = OutRegs.CX ' returns the current mouse column position

Explanation: InRegs and OutRegs become the DOT variable prefix name for the TYPE definition's variables.
Each TYPE variable is designated as the DOT variable's suffix.

* Note: Omitting variables in the RegType definition can change other program variable values!


Example 2: Creating an addressbook database for a RANDOM file.

TYPE ContactInfo First AS STRING * 10 Last AS STRING * 15 Address1 AS STRING * 30 Address2 AS STRING * 30 City AS STRING * 15 State AS STRING * 2 Zip AS LONG ' (4 bytes) Phone AS STRING * 12 END TYPE DIM Contact AS ContactInfo 'create contact record variable for RANDOM file RecordLEN% = LEN(Contact) ' 118 bytes 'define values Contact.First = "Ted" ' the fixed string length value will contain 7 extra spaces Contact.Zip = 15236 ' LONG value that can be used to search certain zip code numbers. PUT #1, 5,Contact 'place contact info into fifth record position

Explanation: Use the assigned type variable to find the RANDOM record length which is 118 bytes.
The DOT variable names consist of Contact as the prefix:


Example 3: Defining a TYPE variable as another variable type from a previous TYPE definition in QB64.

TYPE bar b AS STRING * 10 END TYPE TYPE foo a AS SINGLE c AS bar 'define variable as a bar type END TYPE DIM foobar AS foo 'create a variable to use the foo type foobar.a = 15.5 foobar.c.b = "this is me" PRINT foobar.a, foobar.c.b END


Example 4: A bitmap header information TYPE $INCLUDE File.

' ******** 'Bitmap.BI can be included at start of program TYPE BMPHeaderType ' Description Bytes QB64 ID AS STRING * 2 ' File ID is "BM" 2 Size AS LONG ' Size of the data file 4 Res1 AS INTEGER ' Reserved 1 should be 0 2 Res2 AS INTEGER ' Reserved 2 should be 0 2 Offset AS LONG ' Start position of pixel data 4 Hsize AS LONG ' Information header size 4 PWidth AS LONG ' Image width 4 _WIDTH (QB64) PDepth AS LONG ' Image height 4 _HEIGHT Planes AS INTEGER ' Number of planes 2 BPP AS INTEGER ' Bits per pixel(palette) 2 _PIXELSIZE Compress AS LONG ' Compression 4 ImageBytes AS LONG ' Width * Height = ImageSIZE 4 Xres AS LONG ' Width in PELS per metre 4 Yres AS LONG ' Depth in PELS per metre 4 NumColors AS LONG ' Number of Colors 4 SigColors AS LONG ' Significant Colors 4 END TYPE ' Total Header bytes = 54

'$INCLUDE: 'Bitmap.BI' 'use only when including a BI file DIM SHARED BMPHead AS BMPHeaderType GET #1, , BMPHead 'get the entire bitmap header information

Explanation: Use one GET to read all of the header information from the start of the bitmap file opened AS BINARY. It reads all 54 bytes as STRING, INTEGER and LONG type DOT variable values.
NOTE: BPP returns 4(16 colors), 8(256 colors) or 24(16 million colors) bits per pixel in Qbasic. 24 bit can only be in greyscale.
Then use the DOT variable name values like this GET (graphics statement) after you load the bitmap image to the screen:

GET (0, 0)-(BMPHead.PWidth - 1, BMPHead.PDepth - 1), Image(48) 'indexed for 4 BPP colors

The bitmap image is now stored in an array to BSAVE to a file. The RGB color information follows the file header as ASCII character values read using ASC. The color values could be indexed at the start of the Array with the image being offset to: index = NumberOfColors * 3. As determined by the SCREEN mode used. In SCREEN 13(256 colors) the index would be 768.


See also:



Navigation:
Go to Keyword Reference - Alphabetical
Go to Keyword Reference - By usage
Go to Main WIKI Page
Views
Personal tools
  • 54.165.90.203
  • Talk for this IP
  • Log in