FUNCTION - QB64 Wiki

FUNCTION

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A FUNCTION block statement is used when creating a function procedure to return a calculated value to a program.


Syntax:

FUNCTION procedure_name[type-suffix] [(parameters)]
...
... 'variable definitions and procedure statements
...
END FUNCTION


  • The function type can be any variable type that it will return to the program and is represented by the type suffix.
  • QB64 currently cannot use FUNCTION name AS type! This VB functionality is promised in the future.
  • Functions hold ONE return value in the function's name which is a variable type. Other values can be passed through parameter(s).
  • Functions are often referred to in program calculations, not called like SUB procedures. CALL cannot be used with functions!
  • If there are no parameters passed or they are SHARED the parameters and parenthesis are not required.
  • The IDE may require that an intermediate variable be used when calculations define the function's value more than once! In those cases, make the Function's name equal to the intermediate variable's value at the end of the Function.
  • Variable names within the procedure do not have to match the names used in the reference parameters, just the value types.
  • All dynamic variable values return to 0 or null strings when the procedure is exited except when a variable or the entire function is STATIC. This can save program memory as all dynamic memory used in a FUNCTION is released on procedure exit.
  • FUNCTION procedure code can use GOSUB and GOTO line numbers or labels inside of the procedure when necessary.
  • For early function exits use EXIT FUNCTION before END FUNCTION and GOSUB procedures using RETURN.
  • QB64 ignores all procedural DECLARE statements! Define all parameter TYPEs in the FUNCTION procedure.
  • Images are not deallocated when the SUB or FUNCTION they are created in ends. Free them with _FREEIMAGE.
  • Recursive Functions will require a parameter to repeat internal references currently in QB64.


Qbasic
  • Once a FUNCTION is created and used, the Qbasic IDE will DECLARE it when the file is saved. QB64 doesn't need them!
  • The IDE can create the FUNCTION and END FUNCTION lines for you. Use the Make FUNCTION option in the Edit Menu. A box will come up for you to enter a name for the FUNCTION. Enter all code between the FUNCTION and END FUNCTION lines.
  • Qbasic's IDE may place a DEFINT, DEFSNG, DEFLNG, DEFDBL or DEFSTR statement before the FUNCTION line if it is used in the main module. It may even be the wrong variable type needed. It can be changed or removed when necessary.
  • Qbasic allowed programmers to add DATA fields anywhere because the IDE separated the main code from other procedures.


Example 1: A simple function that returns the current path. Place FUNCTION or SUB procedures after the program END.

PRINT "Current path = "; PATH$ END FUNCTION PATH$ f% = FREEFILE file$ = "D0Spath.inf" 'file name uses a zero to prevent an overwrite of existing file name SHELL _HIDE "CD > " + file$ 'send screen information to a created text file OPEN file$ FOR INPUT AS #f% 'file should exist with one line of text LINE INPUT #f%, PATH$ 'read file path text to function name CLOSE #f% KILL file$ END FUNCTION


Example 2: Returns a LONG array byte size required for a certain sized graphics screen pixel area GET.

INPUT "Enter a screen mode: ", mode% INPUT "Enter image width: ", wide& INPUT "Enter image depth: ", deep& IntegerArray& = ImageBufferSize&(wide&, deep&, mode%) \ 2 ' returns size of an INTEGER array. PRINT IntegerArray& END DEFINT A-Z FUNCTION ImageBufferSize& (Wide&, Deep&, ScreenMode%) SELECT CASE ScreenMode% CASE 1: BPPlane = 2: Planes = 1 CASE 2, 3, 4, 11: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 1 CASE 7, 8, 9, 12: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 4 CASE 10: BPPlane = 1: Planes = 2 CASE 13: BPPlane = 8: Planes = 1 CASE ELSE: BPPlane = 0 END SELECT ImageBufferSize& = 4 + INT((Wide& * BPPlane + 7) / 8) * (Deep& * Planes) 'return the value to function name. END FUNCTION

Explanation: Function calculates the array byte size required when you GET an area of a graphics SCREEN. Each mode may require a different sized array. Since graphics uses INTEGER arrays, 2 byte elements, the size returned is divided by 2 in the IntegerArray& calculation function reference. Function returns only 4 for SCREEN 0 which is a text only mode.


See also:



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